On Chinese sculpture

Modern sculpture is a silent poem, three-dimensional painting and solidified music in the city. Many excellent sculptures have become landmarks of cities, such as the little mermaid in Copenhagen, Denmark, the boy peeing in Brussels, Belgium, and the bronze knight in St. Petersburg, Russia.


Sculpture has been a kind of plastic art since ancient times in China. The bronze statues and figurines, represented by the bronze statues of Sanxingdui and the terracotta warriors and horses of the first emperor of Qin Dynasty, are mostly used in mausoleums and sacrificial activities. After Buddhism was introduced into China, there were Buddhist sculptures. Buddhism originated from ancient India, and there were no statues at the beginning of its characters and stories. In 344 BC, Alexander the great led his troops to the East for ten years. After the destruction of the Persian Empire, he went to India and brought western sculpture to the East. In the first century BC, the first Buddhist statue with Greek style was born in a place called Gandhara in ancient India. After the Buddhist statue art was introduced into China, it soon got unprecedented development.


Buddhist sculpture is the main body and essence of China's ancient sculpture. Born in the northern and Southern Dynasties, there are more than 2000 Buddha statues in Dunhuang Mogao Grottoes. Due to climate and other reasons, most of the Buddha statues are clay sculptures. Yungang Grottoes in Datong were excavated in the Northern Wei Dynasty (460 A.D.), with 51000 stone sculptures. Among them, the largest cave is cave 5, with a height of 17 meters. From the southern and Northern Dynasties to the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms, the Longmen Grottoes in Luoyang have been excavated for more than 400 years, with more than 97000 Buddha statues. Fengxian Temple is the largest and most exquisite group of cliff sculptures in Longmen Grottoes. According to records, Wu Zetian once sponsored 20, 000 yuan for her. Fengxian Temple has nine large Buddha statues. The main Buddha in the middle is Lushena Buddha, which is 17.14 meters high. It is Sakyamuni's Baoshen Buddha. Its exquisite carving techniques make it the peak of Chinese stone carving art and the symbol of the great Tang Dynasty.


The difference between ancient Chinese sculpture and Western sculpture is that the early works of ancient Greek sculptors were created by Zeus, Prometheus, Poseidon and other gods. The gods in Greek mythology are almost the same as human beings. They not only have the beauty of human body, but also have seven emotions and six desires, joys and sorrows. The sculptors mastered the anatomical structure of human body, making the image of gods more humanized. In China, the Buddha sculptures are entirely based on human imagination to shape the God, which does not follow the principle of human anatomy. The reclining statue of Sakyamuni in Mogao Grottoes is several times larger than that of the believers around him. The image of Buddha varies greatly in different periods. There are also four sided Buddha, thousand hands and thousand eyes Buddha and so on, which show the boundless power of Buddhism.


After the revolution of 1911, the Western sculpture theory was gradually accepted by the Chinese people, but due to years of war, there were few works. After the birth of new China, our country learned from the Soviet Union. In the field of sculpture creation, there are many theme and memorial sculptures. Large public buildings are mostly equipped with group sculptures with workers, peasants and soldiers as the main body. In some big cities, there are sculptures of Lu Xun, Sun Yat Sen and others.


Reform and opening up has brought spring to Chinese sculpture art. In July 1984, the sculpture "Tuo Huang Niu" was completed in Shenzhen, and "Tuo Huang Niu" became the symbol of Shenzhen. Subsequently, theme sculptures, memorial sculptures, abstract sculptures, scene sculptures and sketch sculptures have sprung up all over the world, among which many excellent works have become beautiful landscapes in modern cities. When people appreciate these sculptures, they not only cultivate their spiritual sentiment, but also increase their sense of identity with beautiful China.